Une météorite martienne remet en question le modèle de formation de Mars et peut-être plus généralement des planètes rocheuses. © Nasa, JPL, Caltech, T. Pyle

A meteorite upsets the theory of the formation of Mars

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[EN VIDÉO] The planets of the Solar System were born from cataclysms
The Earth and the other planets that revolve around the Sun were born in a whirlwind, at random from successive collisions. This is how this episode of the series Keys to the Universe, offered by the Discovery Science channel, describes it.

The study of meteorites found on Earth allows better understand the formation of our planet and its siblings Mercury, Venus and Mars. True relics of the origin of Solar systemmeteorites help scientists to define in particular the original composition of rocky planets and in particular the nature and the origin of volatile elements that enter into the composition of the rocks and that participated in the formation of our atmosphere.

Formation of rocky planets: nebulae or chondrites?

Currently, the current hypothesis about the formation of rocky planets suggests that these volatile elements were drilled early in the solar nebula by the young planets in formation. At this point, the Earth but the other rocky planets they were also balls of rock at The melting point of water, in other words, the temperature at which ice melts…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences. com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/7 /d/0/7d0df59f3c_82086_fusion.jpg” data-url=”https://news.google.com/sciences/definitions/physics-fusion-15305/” data-more=”Read next”>fusion. Volatile items, such as General
Symbol: H Atomic Number:…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/3/8/8/38807f95a1_50010101_equinoxprom-eit-big.jpg” data-url =”https://news.google.com/sciences/definitions/chemistry-hydrogen-14495/” data-more=”Read more”>hydrogenThe general
Symbol: CAtomic number: 6Electrons per energy level: 2.4Atomic mass: 12,011 uMost stable isotopes: 12C stable with six…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/ images/ midioriginal/ 2/1/9/2198868bcb_69707_carbone.jpg” data-url=”https://news.google.com/sciences/definitions/chimie-carbone-3873/” data-more=”Read more”>CoalThe general
Symbol: ON Atomic number: 8 electrons per energy level: 2.6 Atomic mass: 15,999 u Most stable isotopes…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/ midioriginal/4 / 7/d/47dc2cafaf_59586_rust-screw.jpg” data-url=”https://news.google.com/sciences/definitions/chemistry-oxygen-798/” data-more=”Read More”>oxygenThe general
Symbol: N Atomic number: 7 Electrons per energy level: 2.5 Atomic mass: 14,007 uIsotopes…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/5/ 7 /a /57a531d2d3_50012051_suprazote.jpg” data-url=”https://news.google.com/sciences/definitions/tableau-periodique-elements-azote-13578/” data-more=”Read more”>nitrogen And more gas rare, were thus absorbed, dissolving into the ocean of the Magma Formation
It forms at high temperature and under high pressure…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/6/1/2/612232a1f7_50034213_gabbro-piotr-sosnowski-wikipedia. jpg” data-url=”https://news.google.com/planete/definitions/structure-terre-magma-461/” data-more=”Read more”>magma occupying its surface. Then through the Volcano: what is the difference between lava and magma?
The morphologies created…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/9/e/0/9e09305935_113602_volcanisme.jpg” data-url=”https://news .google.com/planete/definitions/volcanologie-volcanisme-972/” data-more=”Read more”>volcanism that followed, these gases came to form an atmosphere. The young planets were then subjected to a long and intense bombardment by meteorites called ” chondrites », which also participated in the contribution of volatile elements. The idea is also that it is the volatile elements of meteorites that have contributed most to the formation of the atmosphere, at least on Earth.

From this hypothesis it follows that the composition of the primitive solar nebula, or of the nebula-meteorite mixture, would be found mainly at the level of the innermost layers of the Earth. In fact, it is more likely that the deep parts of the mantle have preserved this chemical signature. than the uppermost layers, which for billions of years have been subject to intense melting and In geology, degassing is the release of gas from molten rock or ice. This phenomenon may be at the origin of the appearance of a primitive atmosphere on certain telluric planets. In the case of comets, this…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/9/7/1/971a8fb4aa_50035476_city-paris-degazage-sauvage-herve – cozanet-gfdl-1-2-cc.jpg” data-url=”https://news.google.com/planete/definitions/geologie-degazage-6845/” data-more=”Read more”>degassing. However, a new study disrupts this pattern of thinking.

A meteorite that testifies to the internal composition of Mars

Meteorites that fall to Earth can come from many sources, including the surfaces of other rocky planets around the world. Solar system. The powerful impacts that struck the various planets early in their lives hurled planetary fragments into space, which still regularly collide with neighboring planets. Thus fragments of Martian rocks were found on Earth. One of these meteorites, however, has a particular value for scientists, since it would not come from the surface, but from the interior of Mars, an extremely rare occurrence. It’s about the meteorite de Chassigny, discovered in France in 1815.

A team of researchers has studied the composition of this meteorite and, in particular, the origin of its volatile elements. The analysis of the isotopic proportions of krypton usually makes it possible to differentiate the solar or chondritic origin of the volatile elements. And the results of the study of the Chassigny meteorite are surprising to say the least.

Indeed, the isotopic analysis shows that the volatile elements it contains would not come from an assimilation of components of the solar nebula as we thought, but from an integration of chondritic material. This implies that the chondrites would have participated much earlier than we thought in the contribution of volatile material, that is, at the time of the formation of the planet from the solar nebula.

It could even be that the situation is completely reversed, with the internal composition of the planet being associated with chondrites, and that of the atmosphere with the solar nebula.

The atmosphere of Mars would have formed very quickly

The article, which has just appeared in the magazine Sciencessuggests in any case that the atmosphere of Mars could not have been formed solely by outgassing of the The mantle, although solid, is animated by convection currents that…” data-image=”https://cdn .futura- sciences. com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/7/4/6/7466fb8049_50004180_earth-270907.jpg” data-url=”https://news.google.com/planete/definitions/structure-earth-coat-terrestrial-2495 /” data-more=”Read more”>Coat, which should then have had a chondritic composition. It is possible that the planet acquired its atmosphere very early, by integrating elements of the solar nebula, and that before the magma ocean cooled. It should be noted that Mars solidified very quickly, in only 4 million years, although this duration is discussedunlike Earth, which took 50 to 100 million years to cool down.

These new results suggest that Mars would have finished growing before the solar nebula dissipated under the effect of radiation from the young The Sun is the closest star to Earth, from which it is approximately 150 million kilometers away. The Sun is 8.5 kparsecs from the center of the Milky Way. In stellar classification, the sun is a G2-type star.
The mass…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/1/d/9/1d9cd1d45f_50034577_eruption.jpg” data-url=”https://news. google.com/sciences/definitions/univers-soleil-3727/” data-more=”Read more”>Sun.

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